How Big Is Jupiter

22.08.2023 0 Comments

How Big Is Jupiter
Jupiter has a diameter of about 88,695 miles (142,800 kilometers) which is more than 11 times the diameter of Earth. It’s volume is over 1,300 times the volume of Earth. This means that Jupiter is so big that over 1,300 Earths could fit inside of it. Jupiter is so big that it weighs two and a half times the weight of all of the other eight planets put together!

How big is Jupiter compared to us?

Density, mass and volume – Known as a gas giant, Jupiter is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, according to NASA, It weighs in at 1.9 x 10 27 kilograms. Although it is significantly more massive than Earth, it is only a fifth as dense, at 1,326 kg/m 3, because it is made of gas rather than rock.

  1. The volume of Jupiter is 1,431,281,810,739,360 cubic kilometers, 1,321 times that of Earth.
  2. The surface area of this enormous planet is 23,713,907,537 square miles, or 6.1419×10 10 square kilometers, 120 times that of our planet.
  3. Jupiter’s structure resembles that of the sun, but would need to be 75 times its present mass to undergo the fusion of hydrogen that fuels a star, according to the journal Science,

The mass of the largest gas giant planets found outside of the solar system is often given in terms of the enormous planet.

How many Earths can Jupiter fit?

Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. Jupiter is so big that all the other planets in the solar system could fit inside it. More than 1,300 Earths would fit inside Jupiter. Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun.

How big is Jupiter compared to Earth and the Sun?

Solar System Sizes | NASA Solar System Exploration The Solar System

Mercury – 1,516mi (2,440km) radius; about 1/3 the size of Earth Venus – 3,760mi (6,052km) radius; only slightly smaller than Earth Earth – 3,959mi (6,371km) radius Mars – 2,106mi (3,390km) radius; about half the size of Earth Jupiter – 43,441mi (69,911km) radius; 11x Earth’s size Saturn – 36,184mi (58,232km) radius; 9x larger than Earth Uranus – 15,759mi (25,362km) radius; 4x Earth’s size Neptune – 15,299mi (24,622km) radius; only slightly smaller than Uranus

This illustration shows the approximate sizes of the planets relative to each other. Outward from the Sun, the planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, followed by the dwarf planet Pluto. Jupiter’s diameter is about 11 times that of the Earth’s and the Sun’s diameter is about 10 times Jupiter’s.

How big is Jupiter without gas?

How big would Jupiter be if it were stripped of all its gases? Thanks to NASA’s Juno mission, we now have a few clues as to what Jupiter’s internal structure looks like. At its centre, extending out by up to 30 per cent of the planet’s radius, is a dense, liquid core made of ionised (‘metallic’) hydrogen and helium, mixed with dissolved heavier elements.

The pressure and temperature inside Jupiter drop off as you get further from the centre. This means the liquid interior eventually gives way to a gaseous atmosphere (also mostly hydrogen and helium). The depth of this liquid/gas boundary is not well defined, but Jupiter is probably fully liquid a few thousand kilometres below the planet’s cloud tops.

So, even if we stripped Jupiter of its gases, it would still be bigger than Saturn. Read more: undefined : How big would Jupiter be if it were stripped of all its gases?

Is Jupiter hot or cold?

  1. References
  2. Science & Astronomy

With an average temperature of minus 234 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 145 degrees Celsius), Jupiter is frigid even in its warmest weather. Unlike Earth, whose temperature varies as one moves closer to or farther from the equator, Jupiter’s temperature depends more on height above the surface. This is because heat is driven not by the sun but by the interior of the planet. A comparison of the visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared views of Jupiter. The thermal-infrared image shows the heat from the planet’s surface, rather than the light reflected by the sun, and allows for greater understanding of the turmoil in the Jovian atmosphere.

(Image credit: Mike Wong, Franck Marchis, Christopher Go) Layers of gas Jupiter is made up predominantly of hydrogen, with some helium. Small traces of other gases also contribute to the planet’s composition, These gases fill the entire planet, descending all the way to the core. The surface, as identified by scientists, is the region where the pressure is equal to that at the surface of Earth, one bar.

But don’t be misled by the term; you can’t stand on Jupiter’s surface, because it isn’t solid. Below the surface, the gas becomes liquid and even plasma, all the way to the central core. Within the regions of gas, the temperature varies in the layers of Jupiter’s atmosphere,

  1. From the surface to about 30 miles (50 kilometers) up, the temperature decreases as you ascend, ranging from minus 100 C (minus 150 F) to minus 160 C (minus 260 F).
  2. In the next layer, the temperature increases with altitude, returning to up to minus 150 F again.
  3. At the top of the atmosphere, temperatures can reach as high as 1,340 F (725 C), over 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) above the planet’s surface.

Heating sources Because Jupiter’s distance from the sun is an average of 484 million miles (778 million km), heat from the star is weak, though it does contribute. Much of the heating of the gases come from the inside of planet itself. Beneath the surface, convection from the liquid and plasma hydrogen generate more heat than from the sun.

  • How Far Away is Jupiter?
  • Jupiter’s Atmosphere: Composition & the Great Red Spot
  • What is Jupiter Made Of?
  • How Was Jupiter Formed?
  • How Big is Jupiter?

Join our Space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more! And if you have a news tip, correction or comment, let us know at: [email protected]. Breaking space news, the latest updates on rocket launches, skywatching events and more! Nola Taylor Tillman is a contributing writer for

Is Jupiter all gas?

Surface. As a gas giant, Jupiter doesn’t have a true surface. The planet is mostly swirling gases and liquids.

How hot is Jupiter?

Given how far Jupiter is from the Sun, you might think that “how cold is Jupiter?” would be a more relevant question and you would be partially right. “How hot is Jupiter?” becomes more relevant the deeper into the planet’s atmosphere and core that you travel.

  1. Near the very center of the planet, scientists believe that temperatures can reach 35,500 C.
  2. The outer edges of Jupiter’s atmosphere are much cooler than the core region.
  3. Temperatures in the atmosphere are thought to be as cold as -145 degrees C.
  4. The intense atmospheric pressure on Jupiter contributes to temperature increases as you descend.

Not far into the atmosphere the pressure can be ten times what it is here on Earth and scientists speculate that the temperature is 20 degrees C(average room temperature on Earth). A few hundred km deeper into the planet and hydrogen becomes hot enough to turn into a liquid.

The temperature at this point is believed to be over 9,700 C. The layer of dense molten hydrogen metal extends to the 78th percentile of the planet’s radius. Between the cold clouds and the molten lower regions is an interior atmosphere of hydrogen. The hydrogen in this region is at a temperature where there are no distinct liquid and gas phases, so the hydrogen is said to be in a supercritical fluid state.

The molten inner regions of the planet serve to heat the rest of the planet through convection, so Jupiter gives off more heat than it receives from the Sun. This heating prevents it from being an ice giant instead of a gas giant, but wreaks havoc in the atmosphere.

Storms and high winds are generated by cool air and warm air mixing here on Earth. Scientist think that the same holds true on Jupiter. The Galileo spacecraft observed winds in excess of 600 kph. One difference is that the jet streams that drive storms and winds on Earth are caused by the Sun heating the atmosphere.

On Jupiter it seems that the jet streams are driven by the planets’ own heat. Storms on Jupiter are as out-sized as the planet. The Great Red Spot is a single storm that has been raging for hundreds of years. Other storms have been observed to grow to more than 2,000 km in diameter in a single day.

  1. How hot is Jupiter?” is more relevant than you may have thought.
  2. The planet’s inner heat seems to be the basis for its identity as a stormy world.
  3. The actual temperatures of the different areas of the planet may not be a mystery much longer.
  4. Hopefully, the recently launched JUNO space mission will clear up many of the Jovian theories that scientists currently have.

We’ve written many articles about the temperature of planets for Universe Today. Here’s an article about how hot Mercury is, and here’s an article about how hot Venus is, If you’d like more information on Jupiter, check out Hubblesite’s News Releases about Jupiter, and here’s a link to NASA’s Solar System Exploration Guide to Jupiter,

What is the biggest planet ever discovered?

The largest planet in the universe is called ROXs 42Bb, and it’s believed to have a radius up to 2.5 times that of Jupiter or slightly more. This is a massive planet believed to be in the Rho Ophiuchi cloud complex, and it was first discovered in 2013. This type of planet is known as a Hot Jupiter.

What is the largest planet in the universe?

What’s the biggest planet in the universe? – The biggest planet in the known universe is likely a giant exoplanet named ROXs 42 Bb. This gas giant, nearly 500 light-years from Earth, was discovered in 2013., ROXs 42 Bb has a radius that’s estimated to be 1.12 times that of Jupiter’s. An image of the ROXs 42 Bb (the large centre blue circle) taken by the Keck Telescope in Hawaii © Thayne Currie As new details on the surrounding galaxies and universe emerge, it’s likely scientists will discover new planets even bigger than ROXs 42 Bb.

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The line does blur, however, over what classifies as a planet and what is, in fact, a brown dwarf – objects that are somewhere between a planet and a star. You can think of brown dwarfs as failed stars – they essentially didn’t gain enough mass to kickstart nuclear fusion in their cores. Instead, planets form from the accumulation of leftover debris from these stellar births.

Brown dwarfs are also too big to count as planets, which are technically classified as about 13 times the mass of Jupiter. ROXs 42 Bb has the estimated mass of nine Jupiters so it can still be defined as a planet. Read more: : What’s the largest planet in the Universe? – BBC Science Focus Magazine

How did Jupiter get so big?

The presence of these heavy elements suggests that Jupiter devoured large space rocks as it formed. The discovery rules out an alternative explanation: that the planet grew by consuming lots of pebbles roughly a centimetre in size. Planets in other solar systems might also be hiding heavy elements in their cores.

Does Jupiter have water?

It has three layers made of ammonia ice, ammonium hydrosulfide crystals, and water ice and vapor. So, YES, Jupiter does have water. But it is not a large percentage of the chemical composition of the planet. The colors of Jupiter result from the different elements in its upper atmosphere, including water.

Does Jupiter have a solid core?

According to most theories, Jupiter has a dense core of heavy elements that formed during the early solar system. The solid core of ice, rock, and metal grew from a nearby collection of debris, icy material, and other small objects such as the many comets and asteroids that were zipping around four billion years ago.

These bits of matter clumped together due to their mutual gravity, becoming larger chunks called planetesimals, which, in turn, collided and stuck together to form Jupiter’s core. Soon, the core grew big enough so that it had enough gravity to attract even hydrogen and helium, the lightest elements that exist.

More and more gas accumulated until it became what we now know as Jupiter. Although most scientists agree on this general story, many details remain unknown. For example, we’re still not sure where all the icy matter comes from. Another theory, however, suggests that there’s no core at all.

Instead, Jupiter formed from the large cloud of gas and dust that surrounded the Sun soon after its birth. As this cloud cooled and condensed, gas and dust particles lumped together so that some regions were denser than others. One of these dense splotches was able to gravitationally pull more and more gas and dust together, swelling into a full-fledged planet.

By measuring Jupiter’s gravitational and magnetic fields, Juno will be able to determine whether a core exists. If it does, exactly what the fields look like will depend on how big it is. Different theories make different predictions about the core, and knowing the size will help determine which theory – if any – is more likely to be correct.

Is Jupiter flammable?

Is it possible for a gas giant like Jupiter to ignite? Asked by: Adam Dooley, Manchester Stars burn as a result of thermonuclear reactions deep in their cores. An object with a mass less than about eight percent of the Sun’s cannot ignite significant nuclear reactions in its core.

These objects are ‘failed’ stars called brown dwarfs. In their youth, brown dwarfs do generate some energy from fusing deuterium into helium nuclei, but older brown dwarfs only radiate a small amount of heat due to their slow contraction. The dividing line between these brown dwarfs and gas planets occurs at about 1 per cent of the mass of the Sun.

Objects less massive than that can never achieve the core temperatures required for thermonuclear reactions. This corresponds to about 13 times the mass of Jupiter, meaning that Jupiter itself is incapable of ever ‘igniting’. Jupiter lies pretty close to the limit of what we’d call a gas giant.

Can we survive without Jupiter?

25 mins read 07 Oct 2021 Professor Jonti Horner from the University of Southern Queensland aims to bust some of those great myths of astronomy and space – starting with the myth that Jupiter protects life on Earth. In reality, it’s a little more complicated than that. Jupiter, captured by Andy Casely/Flickr. Astronomy is a science that fascinates and captivates people of all ages, all across the globe. Documentaries about space are sure-fire rating winners, and people have an endless appetite to learn more about our cosmos.

But not every story that is told about the universe holds true – and over the years, many myths have entered our collective consciousness, taking route in the fertile soil of our collective imagination. If you’ve ever watched a documentary about the Solar system’s most massive planet, Jupiter, you will doubtless have heard the story of how the giant is our apparent gallant protector.

Without Jupiter, the Earth would be pummeled by impacts from asteroids and comets, rendering our planet utterly uninhabitable. It’s a great story, with one minor drawback – it simply isn’t true! Or, to be more accurate, the story is far more complicated than that old but widely held, myth would have you believe.

Is Saturn losing its rings?

Sign up for CNN’s Wonder Theory science newsletter. Explore the universe with news on fascinating discoveries, scientific advancements and more. CNN — Saturn’s iconic icy rings may not be around for future skygazers to glimpse at through their telescopes, according to new research.

A new analysis of data captured by NASA’s Cassini mission, which orbited the gas giant planet between 2004 and 2017, has revealed new insights into how long the rings have been around and when they may vanish from sight. The findings have been shared in three studies published in May. Our solar system and its planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago, and scientists have long debated the age and origin of Saturn’s rings.

Some astronomers have argued that the bright, icy rings must be younger than expected because they haven’t been eroded and darkened by interactions with meteoroids across billions of years. The Cassini data has led to a new finding, published May 15 in the journal Icarus, that supports this theory of the rings appearing long after Saturn’s initial formation.

Additional studies published on May 12 in Science Advances and May 15 in Icarus, respectively, arrived at similar conclusions. “Our inescapable conclusion is that Saturn’s rings must be relatively young by astronomical standards, just a few hundred million years old,” said Richard Durisen, professor emeritus of astronomy at Indiana University Bloomington and lead author of both Icarus studies, in a statement.

“If you look at Saturn’s satellite system, there are other hints that something dramatic happened there in the last few hundred million years. If Saturn’s rings are not as old as the planet, that means something happened in order to form their incredible structure, and that is very exciting to study.” It’s likely the seven rings were still forming when dinosaurs roamed the Earth, according to the researchers.

Saturn’s rings are largely comprised of ice, with just a small percentage belonging to the rocky dust created in space by broken asteroid fragments and micrometeoroids. The pieces, similar to sand grains, collide with particles in Saturn’s rings and create floating debris as the ring material orbits the planet.

During Cassini’s Grand Finale, when the spacecraft completed 22 orbits in which it passed between Saturn and its rings, the researchers were able to obtain data about how many meteoroids pollute the rings, the mass of the rings themselves and the rate at which material from the rings rains down on the planet.

  1. All the data seemed to point to the same finding about the younger age of Saturn’s rings.
  2. The researchers were able to gauge how much cosmic dust, which moves through our solar system on a regular basis, has built up on the icy rings.
  3. Over 13 years, Cassini’s bucketlike Cosmic Dust Analyzer was able to scoop up 163 grains of dust that originated from beyond the Saturn system as they whirled around the gas giant.

The rings were surprisingly “clean,” which suggested that they must not have been around long enough to accumulate an excess of cosmic dust. Meanwhile, as meteoroids infiltrate the rings, they push material within the innermost rings toward Saturn at a rapid rate.

Cassini observed that the rings were losing many tons of mass per second, which means the rings don’t have much time left, astronomically speaking. The researchers estimate that the rings will only be around another few hundred million years at most. Previous research has suggested that the rings may disappear within 100 million years,

“We have shown that massive rings like Saturn’s do not last long,” said Paul Estrada, research scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California, and a coauthor of all three studies, in a statement. “One can speculate that the relatively puny rings around the other ice and gas giants in our solar system are left-over remnants of rings that were once massive like Saturn’s.

Maybe some time in the not-so-distant future, astronomically speaking, after Saturn’s rings are ground down, they will look more like the sparse rings of Uranus.” It’s possible that the dark rings around Neptune and Uranus were once larger and brighter, similar to how Saturn’s rings are now, the researchers said.

But what created Saturn’s rings in the first place? Scientists still don’t know for sure, but it’s possible that gravitational instability destroyed some of the icy moons orbiting the giant planet, creating enough material to be pulled into rings of material encircling Saturn.

“The idea that the iconic main rings of Saturn might be a recent feature of our solar system has been controversial, but our new results complete a trifecta of Cassini measurements that make this finding hard to avoid,” said researcher Jeff Cuzzi, a principal investigator at NASA Ames and coauthor of the Saturn research paper that appeared in Science Advances, in a statement.

Future missions to study some of Saturn’s moons could uncover more information about what events created the rings — and lead to other discoveries. “If we can discover what happened in that system a few hundred million years ago to form the rings, we may just end up discovering why Saturn’s moon Enceladus is spewing out from its deep ocean plumes of water, ice and even organic material,” Durisen said.

Does it rain on Jupiter?

Exotic rain drenches Jupiter Exotic rain drenches Jupiter KEITH COOPER ASTRONOMY NOW Posted: 23 March Next time you visit Jupiter remember to take an umbrella with you. Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have discovered that drops of helium rain, laced with neon, could be falling from the clouds. Somewhere deep inside Jupiter it is raining helium. Image: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona. Conditions on the gas giant planet are vastly different to on Earth. Where the droplets are forming, 10,000–13,000 kilometres below the upper cloud deck of hydrogen gas, the temperature rises to 5,000 degrees Celsius, and the pressure reaches two million times Earth’s surface pressure. A slice of the interior of Jupiter. Image: Burkhard Militzer. Neon gas comes into the story because in 1995, when NASA’s Galileo spacecraft launched a probe into Jupiter’s atmosphere, all elements were found to be slightly enriched compared to the Sun, except for helium and neon.

On the Sun neon atoms are one part in 600 by mass, but on Jupiter they are only one-tenth as abundant, i.e. one part in 6,000. Since Jupiter formed from the same gases that formed the Sun, there should be a closer match that that. Instead, Dr Hugh Wilson and Assistant Professor Burkhard Militzer of the University of California, Berkeley, propose in a paper in this week’s edition of Physical Review Letters that Jupiter’s neon is dissolving in the helium raindrops.

“As the helium and neon fall deeper into the planet, the remaining hydrogen-rich envelope is slowly depleted of both neon and helium,” says Militzer. The neon the settles into the mighty core of Jupiter, which supercomputer simulations (the only way of modelling the interior of Jupiter accurately, for no physical laboratory on Earth can replicate those extreme conditions) suggest is made of a solid rocky core surrounded by layers of water, ammonia and methane.

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Does Jupiter support life?

Ingredients for Life? – Jupiter cannot support life as we know it. But some of Jupiter’s moons have oceans beneath their crusts that might support life.10

Can humans go to Venus?

Missions to Venus: Highlights From History, and When We May Go Back (Published 2020) Much visited in an earlier era of space exploration, the planet has been overlooked in recent decades. An artist’s rendering of NASA’s Pioneer Venus 2 spacecraft and four atmospheric probes, for a 1978 mission to learn more about the planet’s atmosphere. Credit. Paul Hudson/NASA Published Sept.14, 2020 Updated June 22, 2021 Carl Sagan once said that is the planet in our solar system,

  1. So when are we going back? Astronomers on Monday, which may be a possible sign of life.
  2. That has some planetary scientists itching to return to the sun’s second planet, especially and other destinations.
  3. If this planet is active and is producing, and there is something that’s making it in the Venus atmosphere, then by God almighty, forget this Mars nonsense,” said Paul Byrne, a planetary scientist at North Carolina State University.

“We need a lander, an orbiter, we need a program.” Venus is not easy to visit. Its carbon-dioxide-rich atmosphere is 90 times as dense as ours, and surface temperatures average 800 degrees Fahrenheit. Its surface pressure is intense enough to crush some submarines.

  1. But that hasn’t stopped human space programs from trying.
  2. Launched by governments on Earth have tried to visit Venus in one way or another.
  3. Here are highlights from past journeys to Venus, as well as the prospects for a speedy return to the planet to find out what’s going on in those clouds.
  4. In 1961, the Soviet space program began trying to explore Venus.

In the decades that followed, it shot dozens of spacecraft toward the world sometimes known as Earth’s twin. While Soviet exploration of Venus started with many misfires, the country became the first to land a spacecraft on another world, and not long after, the first to take photos from the surface of another planet.

Their engineering achievements were significant even by modern standards. After seeing their first round of spacecraft sent into the atmosphere squashed like tin cans, the Soviets realized just how extreme the pressure on Venus was. This trial and error led to the construction of five-ton metal spacecraft built to withstand, even if for just an hour, the immense surface pressures.

Venera 4 in 1967 became the first spacecraft to measure the atmosphere of another planet, detecting large amounts of carbon dioxide that cause the ceaseless Venusian greenhouse effect. A view of the surface of Venus captured by the Soviet Union’s Venera 14 lander in 1982.

  • Credit. Russian Academy of Sciences/Ted Stryk Another view taken by Venera 14.
  • The lander lasted 57 minutes on the surface, where the temperature was 869 degrees Fahrenheit and the pressure of 94 Earth atmospheres. Credit.
  • Russian Academy of Sciences/Ted Stryk Then in 1975, the country’s Venera 9 probe became the first to take images from the surface of another planet.

The world officially met Venus. and later missions sent back revealed a planet that was truly like no other: cracked terrain beneath, The planet we thought might have been covered in oceans and akin to our own was instead an alien world with poison rain.

  • Later missions in the Venera series into the 1980s gave scientists a better understanding of the planet’s geological processes.
  • Venera 11 and 12 both detected large amounts of lightning and thunder as they traveled to the surface.
  • Venera 13 and 14 were both equipped with microphones that documented the sounds of their descent to the surface, making them the first spacecraft to record audio from another planet.

In 1985 the Soviet Union concluded its Venus encounters with the twin Vega spacecraft, which each released large balloons loaded with scientific instruments, demonstrating the potential for probes that could float in the planet’s clouds. The slowed pace of the Soviet space program toward the end of the Cold War halted launches to Venus.

While the Russian space program has, its concepts have not moved off the drawing board. A global view of the surface of Venus made mostly from data captured by the Magellan spacecraft in 1991. Credit. NASA/JPL While Mars has always seemed like the apple of the eyes of American space planners, the Mariner and Pioneer programs of the 1960s and ’70s made time for Venus.

Mariner 2 was the first American spacecraft to make it to Venus, in 1962. It determined that temperatures were cooler higher in the clouds, but extremely hot on the surface. In 1978, the Pioneer missions gave American researchers a closer look. The first of the pair orbited the planet for nearly 14 years, revealing much about the mysterious Venusian atmosphere.

It also observed the surface was smoother than Earth’s, and that Venus had very little or perhaps no magnetic field. A second Pioneer mission sent a number of probes into Venus’s atmosphere, returning information on the structure of the clouds and radar readings of the surface. NASA’s Magellan entered into orbit in 1990 and spent four years mapping the surface and looking for evidence of plate tectonics.

It discovered that nearly 85 percent of the surface was covered in old lava flows, hinting at significant past and possible present volcanic activity. It was also the last of the American visitors, although a number of NASA spacecraft have used Venus as a slingshot as they set course for other destinations.

  1. Venus Express was launched by the European Space Agency in 2005.
  2. It orbited the planet for eight years and observed that it still may have been geologically active.
  3. The planet’s only guest from Earth right now is, which was launched by Japan in 2010.
  4. The probe missed its meeting with Venus when its engine failed to fire as it headed into orbit.

By 2015, the mission’s managers had managed to steer it on a course to orbit and study the planet. It has since transformed how scientists view our clouded twin. In its study of the physics of the dense cloud layers of Venus, the mission has revealed disturbances in the planet’s winds, as well as equatorial jet streams in its atmosphere.

  • A false-color image of Venus’s night side, taken by the Akatsuki spacecraft in 2016. Credit.
  • PLANET-C Project Team/JAXA Many missions back to Venus have been proposed, and some space agencies have declared ambitions of visiting the planet.
  • But it’s hard to say whether any will make the trip.
  • India’s space agency has proposed a mission called Shukrayaan-1, which will orbit the planet and primarily focus on the chemistry of the atmosphere.

Peter Beck, the founder of Rocket Lab, a private company started in New Zealand that has launched about a dozen rockets to space, has recently spoken of, NASA has considered a number of Venus proposals in the past decade, including two in 2017 that were finalists of NASA’s Discovery program, which has previously sent explorers to the moon, Mars, Mercury and other destinations.

  • But the agency instead,
  • Also in 2017, for the larger, more expensive New Frontiers competition, called Venus In situ Composition Investigations, or Vici, which sought to put two landers on the planet’s surface.
  • It was passed over for, the largest moon of Saturn.
  • NASA, however, did provide money for some of the technologies that Vici would need.

And Venus proponents may have a new advocate inside NASA. Lori S. Glaze, the principal investigator of Vici, is now the planetary science division director at NASA. The agency will have another chance to pick a Venus mission for funding in the next round of its Discovery program.

  1. Two Venus spacecraft, named and, are competing against proposed missions to or,
  2. NASA may select two of the four finalists.
  3. And there could be other possibilities for visitors to Venus.
  4. We should also recognize that Venus is a planetary destination we can reach with smaller missions as well,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, the head of NASA’s science mission directorate.

Kenneth Chang contributed reporting. A version of this article appears in print on, Section A, Page 10 of the New York edition with the headline: Humanity’s Various Excursions To Assess Our Planetary ‘Twin’, | | : Missions to Venus: Highlights From History, and When We May Go Back (Published 2020)

Can we land on Saturn?

Surface – As a gas giant, Saturn doesn’t have a true surface. The planet is mostly swirling gases and liquids deeper down. While a spacecraft would have nowhere to land on Saturn, it wouldn’t be able to fly through unscathed either. The extreme pressures and temperatures deep inside the planet would crush, melt, and vaporize any spacecraft trying to fly into the planet. Atmosphere

Could Jupiter become a star?

Could Jupiter become a star? Asked by: Louise Dryden, Cardiff Jupiter is often called a ‘failed star’ because, although it is mostly hydrogen like most normal stars, it is not massive enough to commence thermonuclear reactions in its core and thus become a ‘real star’.

But the term ‘failed star’ is a bit of a misnomer. Theoretically, any object at all could be made into a star, simply by adding enough matter to it. With enough mass, the internal pressure and temperature of the object will reach the threshold needed to start thermonuclear reactions. That threshold is the least for the simplest element, hydrogen.

In order to turn Jupiter into a star like the Sun, for example, you would have to add about 1,000 times the mass of Jupiter. But, to make a cooler ‘red dwarf’ you would only need to add about 80 Jupiter masses. Although the exact numbers are still a bit uncertain, it is possible that a ‘brown dwarf’ could still form (in which deuterium, rather than hydrogen, fuses in the star’s core) with only about 13 Jupiter masses.

Why is Pluto not a planet?

What is a Dwarf Planet? – A “dwarf planet,” as defined by the IAU, is a celestial body in direct orbit of the Sun that is massive enough that its shape is controlled by gravitational forces rather than mechanical forces (and is thus ellipsoid in shape), but has not cleared its neighboring region of other objects, So, the three criteria of the IAU for a full-sized planet are:

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It is in orbit around the Sun. It has sufficient mass to assume hydrostatic equilibrium (a nearly round shape). It has “cleared the neighborhood” around its orbit.

Pluto meets only two of these criteria, losing out on the third. In all the billions of years it has lived there, it has not managed to clear its neighborhood. You may wonder what that means, “not clearing its neighboring region of other objects?” Sounds like a minesweeper in space! This means that the planet has become gravitationally dominant — there are no other bodies of comparable size other than its own satellites or those otherwise under its gravitational influence, in its vicinity in space. Lowell Observatory, Pluto Dome, Flagstaff, AZ. Historic American Buildings Survey (Library of Congress).

Is Jupiter 5 times bigger than the Earth?

Size, Mass and Density: – Earth’s has a mean radius of 6,371 km (3,958.8 mi), and a mass of 5.97 × 10 24 kg, whereas Jupiter has a mean radius of 69,911 ± 6 km (43441 mi) and a mass of 1.8986×10 27 kg. In short, Jupiter is almost 11 times the size of Earth, and just under 318 times as massive. Jupiter/Earth comparison. Credit: NASA/SDO/Goddard/Tdadamemd

Is Jupiter 3 times bigger than Earth?

Diameter: 142 984 km (11 times that of Earth) Mass and volume: Jupiter is more than twice as massive as all other Solar System planets combined, and 318 times as massive as Earth.1321 Earths could fit within a Jupiter-sized sphere. Surface area: Just under 61.5 billion square kilometres (312 times that of Earth) Gravity: 24.79 m/s 2 (2.5 times that of Earth) Density: 1.326 kg/m 3 (0.24 times that of Earth) Average distance from the Sun: 5.2 times the Earth-Sun distance Length of day: 9.93 hours Length of year: 11.86 Earth years Average temperature: Approximately -110°C at an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar (an arbitrarily defined ‘surface’ for Jupiter where surface pressure matches that of sea level on Earth – this is 125 degrees colder than Earth’s mean sea level temperature).

  • Atmosphere: Jupiter has the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, composed of mostly hydrogen (approx.90%) and helium (10%), with minor amounts of methane, ammonia, and other trace gases and aerosols.
  • Moons: 92; the four largest are known as the Galilean moons (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto).12 of these 92 moons were discovered as recently as February 2023.

Jupiter’s largest moon is Ganymede – a truly unique world that will be a key focus for ESA’s Juice mission. Rings: While not as visible as those around its neighbour Saturn, Jupiter has a faint four-part system of dusty rings (a ‘main’, a ‘halo’ and two ‘gossamer’ rings).

This ring system is thought to be replenished by material provided by the small moons Amalthea, Thebe, Metis and Adrastea (something ESA’s Juice mission will explore in more detail). Impressive features: Jupiter experiences giant storms, powerful winds, aurorae, and extreme temperatures and pressures.

The Great Red Spot is a high-pressure storm that has been raging for several centuries: its winds swirl rapidly, hitting speeds of up to 680 km per hour (over three times as fast as the most powerful hurricanes ever recorded on Earth). The spot is found in Jupiter’s southern hemisphere and appears to be shifting and shrinking, although it is still larger than Earth.

Our exploration of Jupiter: Jupiter has been explored since the 1970s via flybys and orbits by NASA’s Pioneer and Voyager programmes, the ESA/NASA Ulysses probe, the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission, NASA’s New Horizons probe, and NASA’s Galileo orbiter (Galileo being the only dedicated Jupiter explorer, and only one to orbit the planet prior to NASA’s Juno probe ).

Juno is the only mission currently operating at Jupiter, having launched in 2011 and entered orbit around the planet in 2016. ESA’s Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (Juice) will arrive at Jupiter in 2031 just after NASA’s Europa Clipper arrives in 2030, which aims to study Jupiter’s moon Europa.

Three of Jupiter’s icy moons have putative oceans beneath their crusts. What are these ocean worlds like – how deep are their oceans, and what is their composition? Ganymede is the largest moon in the Solar System, larger than both Pluto and Mercury, and the only one to have an intrinsic magnetic field. Why is this moon so unique? Did life ever emerge in the Jupiter system? If so, where and when, and could it be there today? How does Jupiter’s complex space environment shape its surroundings? How do Jupiter and its moons interact – and how do the moons interact with one another? What are gas giant planets like? For instance, what processes drive Jupiter’s weather, chemistry and climate, and how does this change over time on a typical giant planet? Can we study Jupiter as a model for gas giant systems across the cosmos?

Read more on what Juice will explore at Jupiter

How big is Jupiter compared to a football field?

Solar System Scale 07.09.04

Image above: The inner planets are all within the 3 yard line and Pluto is on the other end of the field on the 20 yard line. Credit: NASA

Our solar system is huge. There is a lot of empty space out there between the planets. Voyager 1, the most distant human-made object, has been in space for more than 25 years and it still has not escaped the influence of our Sun. As of July 19, 2004, Voyager 1 was about 13,800,000,000 km from the Sun – more than twice the distance from the Sun to icy Pluto.

Needless to say, our solar system doesn’t fit real well on paper – or a Web site for that matter. Scientists figured out a while ago that writing out those huge numbers wasn’t the best use of their time so they invented the Astronomical Unit (AU). One AU – 150,000,000 km represents the average distance from the Sun to the Earth.

It would take an airliner more than 20 years to fly that distance – and that’s just a one-way ticket. (That’s traveling at about 644 km per hour.) In another effort to bring these vast distances down to Earth, we’ve shrunk the solar system down to the size of a football field. Considering a typical honeybee is about 12 mm long, the fans are going to need telescopes to see the action. The inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – are about the size of grains of sand on a football field scale. They would be dwarfed by a typical flea, which is about 3 mm long.

Image to right: On a football field scale, the Sun is about as big as a dime. Credit: NASA Closest to the goal line is Mercury, just under a yard from the end zone (.8 yards to be specific). In reality, the average distance from the Sun to Mercury is roughly 58,000,000 km (35,000,000 miles) or 0.4 AU.

At this scale, Mercury’s 0.06 mm diameter is scarcely as large as the point of a needle. Venus is next. It is 1.4 yards from the end zone. The true average distance from the Sun to Venus is about 108,000,000 km (67,000,000 miles) or 0.7 AU. Its size on this scale is about 0.15 mm.

  • On to Earth, sitting pretty on the 2-yard line.
  • It is slightly larger than Venus at about 0.16 mm.
  • Just as most quarterbacks would be extremely pleased to find their team within two yards of a touchdown, Earth reaps many benefits from this prime location in the solar system.
  • We are at the perfect distance from the Sun for life to flourish.

Venus is too hot. Mars is too cold. Scientists sometimes call our region of space the “Goldilocks Zone” because it appears to be just right for life. As noted earlier, Earth’s average distance to the Sun is about 150,000,000 km (93,000,000 miles) from the Sun.

That’s 1 AU. Mars is on the three-yard line of our imaginary football field. The red planet is about 228,000,000 km (142,000,000 miles) on average from the Sun. That’s 1.5 AU. On this scale, Mars is about 0.08 mm. Asteroids roam far and wide in our solar system. But most are contained within the main asteroid belt between Jupiter and Mars.

On our football field, you’d find them scattered like so many slow-moving linebackers between the four and eight yard lines. In real distances that’s an average of roughly 300,000,000 to 600,000,000 km (186,000,000 to 372,000,000 miles) from the Sun, or 2 to 4 AU.

  1. On this imaginary scale, these so-called “linebackers” are more like microscopic specks than the real hulking linebackers that play for the NFL.
  2. If you could lump together all the thousands of known asteroids in our solar system, their total mass wouldn’t even equal 10 percent of Earth’s moon.) Jupiter remains pretty close to our end zone on the 10.5-yard line.

Our solar system’s largest planet is an average distance of 778,000,000 km (484,000,000 miles) from the Sun. That’s 5.2 AU. Jupiter is the largest of the planets, spanning nearly 1.75 mm in diameter on our football field scale. Jupiter’s diameter is about equal to the thickness of a U.S quarter in our shrunken solar system.

Saturn is on the field at 19 yards from the goal line. The ringed world is about 1,427,000,000 km (887,000,000 miles) from the Sun, or 9.5 AU. Saturn’s size on this scale: 1.47 mm. Uranus is about the point where our cosmic coach would call in an interplanetary field goal kicker. The gas giant is about 38 yards from our end zone.

In real distances, that’s an average of 2,871,000,000 km (1,784,000,000 miles) – 19 AU – from the Sun. That’s quite a kick. It’s little wonder only one spacecraft has visited Uranus. At 0.62 mm on this scale, Uranus is just a little smaller than the letter “R” in the word “TRUST” on a penny.

Neptune is where things start to get way out. It is 60 yards from our solar goal line on the imaginary football field. That’s an average of 4,498,000,000 km (2,795,000000 miles) or 30 AU from the real Sun. Neptune, a little smaller than Uranus, is 0.6 mm on this scale. Tiny Pluto is much closer to the opposing team’s end zone.

It’s about 79 yards out from the Sun or 5,906,000,000 km (3,670,000,000 miles) on average in real distances. That’s 39.5 AU. On this scale, our little friend Voyager 1 has left the game and is well out in the stadium parking lot. The spacecraft is traveling away from the Sun at about 3.5 AU per year.

Why is Jupiter so big?

Astronomers now think it ‘ate’ chunks of other planets. A new scientific paper reckons the gas giant absorbed a number of ‘planetesimals’ on its journey to become the biggest planet in the solar system.