What Time Does Shabbat Start?

26.07.2023 0 Comments

What Time Does Shabbat Start
In Judaism, Timing is Everything – Like every Jewish holiday, Shabbat starts and ends at sundown. Shabbat can start as early as the four o’clock hour on Fridays in the winter and end as late as 9 or 9:30pm on Saturdays in the summer, depending on your exact location, but it always lasts 25 hours.

At what time does Shabbat start?

Shabbat, the Jewish day of rest, begins at sunset on Friday and ends at sunset on Saturday. Starting early Friday afternoon – businesses, shops, and some restaurants begin to close and remain closed during Shabbat. The same holds true for Jewish holidays.

What time does Shabbat start in Israel today?

Shabbat is the Jewish day of rest, the sabbath. It begins at sundown on Friday and ends at sundown on Saturday when the new week begins.

Why is it 18 minutes before Shabbat?

There is an obligation to add on to Shabbos at the beginning and the end. This is referred to as Tosfos Shabbos, According to many poskim this is a Torah obligation. Although it is not clear how much time must be added, Sefer Ohr L’Tzion (II:Hadlakos Neiros) writes that Tosfos Shabbos is at least 3 minutes before sunset.

He recommends stopping melacha (prohibited work) a few minutes before this, to take into account discrepancies in the calendars due to hills and other factors. Rav Moshe Feinstein zt”l (Igros Moshe OC 2:6) writes that the reason for the custom of lighting eighteen minutes before sunset was in order that one should fulfill the mitzvah of Tosfos Shabbos in the optimal way.

However eighteen minutes is not a universal custom. Some communities have the custom of lighting twenty minutes before sunset and some ten minutes before sunset. The custom in Jerusalem is to light forty minutes before sunset. However, the most prevalent custom is eighteen minutes.

Igros Moshe writes that only the one who lights candles accepts Shabbos at that time. Others in the family may continue doing melacha for a few more minutes. It is for this reason in many homes the wife will light candles and the husband will then drive to shul. Learn more about the Halacha Yomis program and subscribe Subscribers can also ask their own questions on Kashrus issues and send them to [email protected],

These questions and their answers may be selected to become one of the Q and A’s on OU Kosher Halacha Yomis.

What time is Shabbat out in Paris?

Shabbat Ends 10:32 PM Caution: Shabbat candles must be lit before sunset. It’s a desecration of the Shabbat to light candles after sunset.

Can you sleep on Shabbat?

It’s true that napping on Shabbat is certainly considered a delight, but unlike food and drink, it’s not a requirement.

Is Tel Aviv open on Sabbath?

Why is Shabbat in Tel Aviv Different? – In Jerusalem and other Israeli cities, most restaurants and shops are closed over Shabbat. However, in Tel Aviv, this is not the case. In fact, many cafes and bars remain open over Friday and Saturday. They are often busier than on regular days of the week.

What time does Shabbat start in Jerusalem?

What Is Shabbat? – For Jewish people, Shabbat (sabbath) is the day of rest. It starts at sunset on Friday and ends at sunset on Saturday. During this time, observant Jews are meant to pray. They will light candles and then go to pray at the synagogue as Shabbat starts, on late Friday afternoon.

After that, they will go home for the Shabbat dinner – a massive family meal that is usually prepared before Shabbat starts and kept warm. Religious people will visit the synagogue again on Saturday morning and one last time for the Havdalah, a service which marks the end of the 24 hours of Shabbat. They won’t work during the Shabbat, and they are not supposed to use any electronic equipment, to drive or ride cars and bikes, and even to cook.

Their houses are equipped with systems that switches the lights on and off at regular intervals so they don’t have to push the buttons, because that very act is forbidden. As pushing the button of an elevator is forbidden, throughout Israel buildings have what are known as “Shabbat elevators,” which stop at every floor so that observant jews can get in and out without having to press any button. Mahane Yehuda Market gets incredibly busy during Shabbat

What does Shabbat Shalom mean?

What Is the Meaning of Shabbat Shalom? – What does Shabbat Shalom mean? The phrase includes two parts: “Shabbat” and “Shalom.” Shalom (pronounced shah-LOHM) means “peaceful” in Hebrew. Shabbat (pronounced shuh-BAHT) means “rest” and has come to be the Jewish word for Sabbath.

  • All together, this phrase, “Shabbat Shalom,” means “peaceful rest” or “peaceful Sabbath” and is used to greet people or bid farewell on the Jewish Sabbath or in the days leading up to Saturday.
  • This greeting and farewell helps Jews remember that Shabbat is a day of rest and of peace from the rest of the week.

The concept of a Sabbath or day of rest comes from the Bible story of the creation that’s told in Genesis. When God created the earth, He rested on the seventh day. To commemorate God and how He rested on this day, Jews also take a day to rest from their weekly activities and responsibilities and to focus on prayer and family.

Why can’t you shower on Shabbat?

Courtesy of Ohr Olam Mishnah Berurah Question: What are the guidelines regarding bathing and showering on Shabbos? Discussion: On Shabbos, it is forbidden min ha-Torah to open the hot water faucet of a bath or a shower, since that allows new water to enter the tank and become cooked on Shabbos.

On Friday night, when the tank and the water it contains are still hot, it is strictly prohibited to turn on the hot water tap even if the boiler was turned off before Shabbos, since the tank and/or the hot water in the tank will cook the water which flows into it automatically.31 It is also forbidden to wash, even a small part of the body such as one’s hands or face, with hot 32 water that was heated up on Shabbos in violation of bishul 33,

Even if the water was somehow heated without violating the melachah of bishul, e.g., it was heated on Shabbos by a non-Jew for the sake of an ill person or a baby, it is still forbidden for anyone else to use that water for washing any part of the body 34,

Chazal forbade bathing or showering in hot water even in hot water that was heated up before Shabbos 35, This prohibition came about because in the times of the Talmud the unscrupulous bathhouse attendants misled their clients by claiming that the water has been heated before Shabbos, while in realty they were engaged in forbidden activities 36 that allowed the water to remain nice and hot on Shabbos.37 But only bathing or showering whole or most of the body, even one limb at a time, is forbidden.

Partial body washing, i.e., less than half of the body, is permitted with hot water that was heated before Shabbos 38, Some poskim hold that water cooking in an urn from before Shabbos is considered as water heated before Shabbos even though it continues to cook on Shabbos, and may be used for partial body washing on Shabbos 39,

Other poskim disagree and maintain that such water is considered as if it was heated on Shabbos and may not be used at all 40, When necessary, one may be lenient 41, Although, as stated, full body bathing or showering is forbidden by rabbinical edict even if the water was heated before Shabbos, Chazal suspended their prohibition under extenuating circumstances.

Certainly, one who is classified as ill, e.g. he is bedridden or weak all over, may wash himself when necessary. Similarly, a dirty baby or toddler may be washed with preheated water. Moreover, even an adult who is classified as a mitztaer, in distress, may bathe or shower with hot water heated before Shabbos.42 In addition, according to some poskim, Chazal suspended the prohibition against bathing in water that was heated before Shabbos regarding men or women using a mikveh for the sake of keudusha or family purity.

  • Some poskim permit using hot water at the mikveh while others allow only lukewarm or chilly water to be used.
  • The widespread custom is to allow women to use the mikveh with hot water that was heated before Shabbos.
  • Some communities allow this for men as well while most communities allow men to dip in chilly or lukewarm 43 water only 44,

All poskim agree that only a quick tevillah shel mitzvah may be permitted; it is forbidden to linger in the water for an extended period of time according to all opinions.45 Swimming in a pool or river is forbidden miderabanan 46, Bathing in a bathtub in chilly or lukewarm water is halachically permitted, but it is universally accepted not to do so 47,

Many poskim, however, allow showering in chilly water for one who is experiencing discomfort or irritation from heat or sweat, etc., and certainly for someone who is classified as ill and needs to shower for medical reasons.48 Whenever bathing or showering is permitted on Shabbos, care must be take not to squeeze the water from any hairy part of the body, since that may be a violation of sechitah/squeezing 49,

For example, after washing his face and beard 50, a man should not use his hands to wring the water out of his beard or payos 51, One is, however, permitted to use a towel to dry his body or hair, provided it is it done gently and slowly; vigorous or spirited drying should be avoided 52,31,

  • Igros Moshe, Y.D.2:33; O.C.5:20-4; Shemiras Shabbos Kehilchasah 1:45; 31, note 4.32,
  • Hot” does not mean burning yad soledes bo hot, but rather to what people refer to when they so “hot water”, which is a little more than the average body heat, approximately 100 degrees Fahrenheit; Aruch ha-Shulchan 326:3; Igros Moshe, O.C.4:74, rechitzah 1; Minchas Yitzchak 4:44.33,

Mishnah Berurah 326:5; 15.34, Minchas Shabbos 86:5; Ketzos ha-Shulchan 133:3 35,O.C.326:1.36, Such as putting chilly water in a keli rishon (Peri Megadim 326:4) or adding wood to the fire right before Shabbos in violation of the rabbinic edict of shema yechateh, described earlier in Chapter 253 and 254 (Shulchan Aruch ha-Rav 326:1, quoting the Ran).37,

  • Shabbos 40a.38,
  • Rama, O.C.326:1.39, Rav S.Z.
  • Auerbach, quoted in Shemiras Shabbos K’hilchasah 14:3, based on Rav Akiva Eiger, note 2 on Magen Avraham O.C.326:2; 40,
  • Shevisas ha-Shabbos (mevashel 126); Igros Moshe, O.C.4:75-1.41,
  • See Shevet ha-Levi 3:33; 4:31; 7:32.42,
  • Beiur Halachah 326:1, s.v.
  • B’mayim, quoting Rav Akiva Eiger.

See also Rav Akiva Eiger’s notes to O.C.307:5, note 3.43, Water temperature below body heat (98 degrees Fahrenheit) is considered lukewarm and is permitted to be used on Shabbos for partial body washing, provide that they became lukewarm before Shabbos.44,

See Mishnah Berurah 326:7; Beiur Halachah 326:8, s.v. adam; Igros Moshe, O.C.4-74, rechitzah 2; Minchas Yitzchak 5:32; 9:40; Shevet ha-Levi 5:44, for the various views about this issue.45, Avnei Nezer, O.C.526. Women who generally dip in the mikveh twice, may do so on Shabbos as well.46,O.C.339:2.47,

Mishnah Berurah 326:21. See Igros Moshe, O.C.3:87, who maintains that bathing in a bath tub may be forbidden halachically as well.48, Ketzos ha-Shulchan 133:8; Igros Moshe, O.C.4:74, rechitzah 3; 4:75; Minchas Yitzchak 6:32; Be’er Moshe 6:73 49, Mishnah Berurah 326:25.

  • Bear in mind that hair does not absorb water.
  • When one squeezes hair, the water being released is water which was contained in between the hair follicles, not inside the hair itself.
  • For this reason, most opinions maintain that squeezing water out of hair is only forbidden miderabanan; see Beiur Halachah 302:9, s.v.

assur; Ketzos ha-Shulchan 133:8. Some Rishonim hold that squeezing water out of hair is permitted altogether; see Orchos Shabbos 13, note 85.50, Igros Moshe, O.C.1:133. If the hair or beard is dirty, it is permitted to scrub the area to remove the dirt.51,

Why do we have 3 meals on Shabbat?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Seudah shlishit ( Hebrew : סעודה שלישית third meal ) or shaleshudes ( Yiddish ) is the third meal customarily eaten by Sabbath-observing Jews on each Shabbat, Its name shaleshudes is an elided form of šālōš sǝʿuddôt (Hebrew: שָׁלֹשׁ סְעֻדּוֹת three meals ).

Why do we light 2 Shabbat candles?

Just before Shabbat begins, two candles are lit marking the division between light and darkness described in the story of Creation and a blessing is recited, generally by the matriarch of the house.

What Is Shabbat? Havdalah: When Shabbat Comes to an End Israeli Products / Candlesticks

Some say the candles represent the two commandments to “remember” and “observe” Shabbat. It is customary for Shabbat candles to be lit approximately 20 minutes before sundown on Friday evening, although it is permissible to light them even earlier. This is often done during the summer, when the days are long.

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The candles may no longer be lit once the sun has set. Click here for this week’s Shabbat candle-lighting times Jewish rituals generally require the blessing to be recited before the mitzvah is performed, but not so with candle-lighting – in this case, the candles should be lit first and the benediction recited after, due to the prohibition of lighting a flame after Shabbat has begun.

The matriarch of the house, or whoever is reciting the benediction, customarily closes her eyes or covers them with her hands while saying, “Blessed art Thou, Lord our God, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to kindle the Sabbath lights.” It is said that, upon opening one’s eyes, the sight of the Shabbat candles elicits delight – and that that is regarded as the culmination of the mitzvah.

Can you watch TV during Shabbat?

Television and radio – Most rabbinical authorities have prohibited watching television during Shabbat, even if the TV is turned on before the start of Shabbat, and its settings are not changed. However, most rabbis have permitted programming a device to record television programmes during Shabbat, the programming to be done before the start of Shabbat and the viewing after.

Most authorities also prohibit either turning on or listening to a radio. The reason is, although an electric current is not turned on, the radio makes a loud noise, falling under the Rabbinic prohibition of making noise with an instrument designed to make noise. However, it may be permitted to turn up the volume of a radio that is already on because many authorities permit adding to an electric current.

Eliezer Waldenberg says that changing the station on a radio by using a dial is prohibited, but Shlomo Auerbach says that it is permitted. Regardless of permissibility, almost all authorities (including Conservative Nevins) consider that watching television, listening to a radio, or use of appliances for similar purposes on Shabbat violates the spirit of Shabbat and is not ideal.

How long is Shabbat dinner?

What Is the Shabbat? – The Shabbat (also known as Shabbos or the Sabbath ) was and is a central aspect of Jewish faith. Celebrated from Friday evening through nightfall on Saturday, the Shabbat commemorates the Lord’s day of rest. And while there are many sacred rituals and observances associated with the Shabbat, such as the Kabbalat Shabbat prayer, one of the most widely celebrated is the Shabbat Dinner,

How many hours does Shabbat last?

The Sabbath is commanded by God – Every week religious Jews observe the Sabbath, the Jewish holy day, and keep its laws and customs. The Sabbath begins at nightfall on Friday and lasts until nightfall on Saturday. In practical terms the Sabbath starts a few minutes before sunset on Friday and runs until an hour after sunset on Saturday, so it lasts about 25 hours.

Can you go to the toilet on Shabbat?

Flushing a Toilet on Shabbat – Dalet Amot of Halacha It goes without saying that flushing a toilet is permitted on Shabbat. There is some discussion, however, whether it is permissible to flush a toilet that is equipped with a disinfectant device that colors the water as it is flushed.

  1. It is virtually unanimous among halachic authorities that one should not flush such a toilet on Shabbat.
  2. This is because doing so might be a violation of tzoveiah, the prohibition against coloring a substance or item on Shabbat.
  3. As such, those who use such devices in their home should remove them before Shabbat.

One who is faced with no choice but to use a toilet whose water will be colored by flushing it has a few options to choose from. There are grounds to be lenient with the disinfecting devices that are affixed to the top of the tank rather than the bowl of the toilet.

This is because when the toilet is flushed, the water is not colored right away. The coloring only occurs after the water in the tank is refilled and reaches the top. The delay between the flushing of the toilet and the coloring of the water, a concept known as gramma, is what forms the basis for leniency in extenuating circumstances.

Disinfectant devices that are affixed to the rim of the toilet bowl are more problematic as the coloring takes place as soon as the toilet is flushed. In such a situation, one should remove the disinfectant device before flushing the toilet, preferably in an indirect manner.

If even this is not possible, then the toilet may be flushed due to the principle of kavod habriot, In this case, however, it is preferable for one to flush the toilet with a shinui, in an irregular manner, such as with one’s elbow, or the back of one’s hand. A toilet that became clogged may be pumped with a common household plunger.

However, it is preferable to pump the toilet with a shinui, such as with one’s weaker hand, and the like. Even more preferable would be to ask a non-Jew to pump the toilet, should there be one available. Nevertheless, if neither of these options is possible then one is permitted to pump the toilet in the regular manner.

Once again, it is largely due to the principle of kavod habriot that one is permitted to unclog a toilet on Shabbat. There is an opinion that a toilet that has become completely blocked and unusable may only be pumped by a non-Jew. Shulchan Shlomo 320:31-3. Tzitz Eliezer 14:47; Be’er Moshe 2:28; Az Nidberu 12:13.

Minchat Yitzchak 5:75. Note: This ruling is based largely on OC 336:9. Igrot Moshe 4:40. : Flushing a Toilet on Shabbat – Dalet Amot of Halacha

Can you drink coffee on Shabbat?

➡️ It is completely permissible to prepare hot coffee on Shabbat via the pour-over method.

Can you drink Shabbat?

Published Winter 2009 One of the most beautiful scenes in Yiddishkeit is the family gathered around the table for Kiddush, a special moment for which we wait all week. On Yom Tov, the beautiful melody 1 ushers in each of the Shalosh Regalim with much excitement.

  1. Although we are quite familiar with how to recite Kiddush, it is important to review the halachos related to this mitzvah,A.
  2. Obligation In the Aseres Hadibros (Ten Commandments), we are commanded to “Remember the Shabbos day to sanctify it.” One fulfills this Torah obligation by simply reciting Kiddush on Shabbos.2 Chazal (the Rabbis) instituted the recitation of Kiddush over a cup of wine.3 This Kiddush consists of Yom Hashishi-Vayechulu, Savri-Borai Pri Hagafen, and the brocha of Kiddush as found in the Siddur,4 Both men and women are equally obligated in this mitzvah,5 B.

The Wine and Kiddush Cup 1. Wine Kiddush may be recited on any kosher wine 6 upon which the brocha of Borei Pri Hagafen is recited. If one cannot drink wine, one may recite Kiddush on grape juice.7 One must be careful to purchase only wine and grape juice that have a reliable kosher certification.2.

Iddush Cup The cup must hold at least a revi ‘ is (3.8 fl. oz.; 112 ml).8 It is mehudar (best)to recite Kiddush using a silver becher,9 The cup should be clean and intact without any cracks or holes. One may also use a glass or any other non-disposable cup. B’sha’as hadechak (in a difficult situation), if the cups listed above are not available (e.g.

one is traveling), one can recite Kiddush on the wine while it is still in a bottle or in a paper, plastic or styrofoam cup. It is best to fill the cup to the top. However, if one does not have enough wine to fill the cup he need not fill it, provided that the cup contains a revi ‘ is of wine.3.

  1. Amount to Drink Upon completing Kiddush, the one who recites it should drink a ” m ‘ lo lugmav, ” the amount of wine that fills one of his cheeks.
  2. For an average adult male, this is between 1.5 and 2 fl. oz.
  3. 44-59 ml).
  4. This amount should be drunk within a 30 second time span.10 B’dieved, one is yotzai (has fulfilled his obligation) if it is drunk within four minutes.11 Ideally, anyone being yotzai Kiddush through listening should also drink some of the wine; 12 however, the listener is still yotzai without drinking any wine.

If it is too difficult for the one who recites Kiddush to drink a m’lo lugmav, someone else may drink the entire m’lo lugmav, If this is not possible, he may share the wine with others so that they 13 collectively drink 2 fl. oz. (59 ml). Either way, the mekadesh should at least drink a little of the wine.

If he cannot drink any of the wine or grape juice (e.g. he is ill), others who heard Kiddush may drink the entire 2 fl. oz.14 C. Kiddush B’Makom seudah – Eating Immediately After Kiddush In The Same Location One is yotzai Kiddush only if a ” seudah ” (meal) is eaten immediately after Kiddush in the same location.

This is known as Kiddush B’Makom seudah,1. Location B’Makom seudah means eating in the same room in which Kiddush was heard. It is acceptable if one heard Kiddush while on one side of the dining room or social hall, and then moved to the other side of the room to eat.

  1. However, one may not leave the building to eat the meal.
  2. For example, one is not yotzai Kiddush if he heard Kiddush in shul and then went home to eat.
  3. If one hears Kiddush in one room, and intends 15 (has da’as ) to eat in a different room in the same building, he may eat in the other room.16 This may be done l’chatchilah only if he can see the other room while saying Kiddush,

If he cannot see the other room, he is only yotzai b’dieved,2. Seudah a. Ideally, the seudah consists of bread. Typically, following Kiddush one washes and recites Hamotzi on lechem mishne (two loaves). This constitutes Kiddush B’Makom seudah, as the seudah follows Kiddush,b.

If one does not eat bread (e.g. at a simcha in shul after davening ), one may eat a food containing chamaishis minei dagan (five special grains including wheat, oats, etc.) upon which the brocha of Mezonos is recited.17 Ideally, the food should be pas haba’a b’kisnin (e.g. cake, cookies or crackers). However, the ” seudah ” may consist of other Mezonos products, such as Yerushalmi kugel or pasta salad.18 In these cases, a regular seudahs Shabbos with lechem mishne must be eaten later.c.

B’sha’as hadechak, if one is ill and cannot eat grain products for Kiddush B’Makom seudah, one can drink a revi’is of wine or grape juice 19 to fulfill this condition.3. Amount of Food a. In the above cases (as addressed previously in 2a and 2b), one must eat a k’zayis,

  • A k’zayis is 1.27 fl. oz.
  • 38 ml).20 It is important to note that a brocha acharona after eating cake (and/or wine) should be recited while sitting.b.
  • If one does not eat a k’zayis, one has not fulfilled his obligation of Kiddush,
  • For example, if one heard Kiddush on Shabbos morning 21 in shul and did not eat (or did not eat the prescribed amount), one is not yotzai Kiddush and he must recite it again and then eat a seudah,c.

Although the ” seudah ” one eats following Kiddush (for Kiddush B’Makom seudah ) can be a k’zayis of cake, it should be noted that to be yotzai the three seudos of Shabbos ( Shabbos meals), one is required to eat a Hamotzi product (e.g. challah, bread or matzah ); a Mezonos product does not suffice.

  1. Ideally, at each seudah, one should eat more than two k’zaysim of bread (i.e.
  2. Yosair m’kebaya ” – at least 2.7 fl.
  3. Oz., 80 ml); b’dieved, a k’zayis of bread will suffice.22 D.
  4. Shomaya K’Ona – Hearing Kiddush Recited By Someone Else Everyone has an obligation to recite and hear Kiddush,
  5. One may fulfill his obligation to recite Kiddush by hearing someone else (the ” mekadesh “) recite it.

This is known as ” Shomaya K ‘ ona ” (literally, “listening is like answering”).23 Shomaya K ‘ ona works only if all of the following conditions are met: 1. One must hear the entire Kiddush – One should not speak while listening and should not say ” Baruch Hu U’Varuch Sh’mo.

  • If one spoke, b’dieved, the following halachos apply: If while speaking one failed to hear a word that is integral to Kiddush (e.g.
  • Boruch ” or ” Hashem Elokeinu ” after ” Boruch Atoh “), one is not yotzai Kiddush,
  • If one did not hear a word that is not integral (e.g.
  • Atoh ” 24 or ” Kee hu yom “), one need not repeat Kiddush,

The same halachos apply if the one reciting Kiddush skips, slurs or mumbles the words and the listener is unable to hear what words were said. It is proper to answer ” Amen ” when being yotzai, however, if one did not do so he is still yotzai, One should also not speak between Kiddush and drinking.

If the mekadesh (or one who is listening) spoke, he is yotzai Kiddush but must recite another Borai Pri Hagafen before drinking.25 2. ” Da ‘ as Shomaya U ‘ mashmia “- It is necessary for the one reciting Kiddush to have in mind that he wishes to be motzee 26 those listening. One may have in mind specific individuals (e.g.

“my family”), 27 or everyone listening (e.g. when a Rav recites Kiddush for everyone present). Furthermore, the one listening to Kiddush must have in mind to be yotzai Kiddush (fulfill the obligation by listening). An example where one is not yotzai is the following scenario: Someone was at a ” shul Kiddush” on Shabbos morning but was not planning to eat.

  1. When the Rav recited Kiddush, the listener did not plan to be yotzai with the Rav (i.e.
  2. He was thinking he will recite Kiddush at home).
  3. If he later changes his mind and decides to eat, he must recite (or hear) Kiddush again.
  4. Although he “heard” Kiddush from the Rav, he did not have in mind to be yotzai at that time.3.
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High Enough Level of Obligation – The person reciting Kiddush must have either the same or higher level of obligation ( chiyuv ) as the listener.28 This means that a child under Bar Mitzvah 29 may not recite Kiddush for an adult, since the child is obligated only because of chinuch (teaching the child to learn how to perform mitzvos ) and the adult has a direct obligation in the performance of this mitzvah,

  • If a husband is ill, his wife may recite Kiddush for him on Shabbos because both men and women are equally obligated to perform this mitzvah,
  • Similarly, a woman may be motzee a man in any mitzvah that she is equally obligated to perform (e.g.
  • Chanukah candles, the brocha on food that she is also eating).However, she may not be motzee him in mitzvos from which she is exempt (e.g.

Shofar, brocha on Sukkah ), or mitzvos from which she is possibly exempt (e.g. Havdalah, Kiddush on Yom Tov ).30 E. Differences Between Kiddush on Friday Night and Shabbos Day 1. If one does not have (or is unable to drink) wine or grape juice, the following halachos apply: a.

  1. Friday Night 31 – One may recite Kiddush on challos,
  2. The procedure is as follows: Wash and recite ” Al Netilas Yadayim,” Recite the entire Kiddush on the lechem mishne, replacing the brocha of ” Borai Pri Hagafen ” with ” Hamotzi Lechem Min Ha’aretz,” 32 After Kiddush, cut and eat the challah,
  3. If one does not have full challos, one may recite Kiddush on regular bread (even slices).b.

Shabbos Day 33 – Kiddush may not be recited on challos or bread. One may recite Kiddush on a revi’is of chamar medina, ideally an alcoholic beverage including schnapps 34 or beer. If these are not available, one may use coffee or iced tea 35 and must drink at least a m’lo lugmav,

  1. The brocha of Shehakol is recited when using chamar medina,2. Time a.
  2. Friday Night – Ideally, Kiddush should be recited as soon as one comes home from shul on Friday night.36 The earliest time to recite Kiddush on Friday afternoon is Plag Hamincha, 37 which is one and a quarter halachic hours 38 before sunset.39 The latest time to say the entire Kiddush is dawn on Shabbos morning.

If one was unable to recite Kiddush at night, one must say Kiddush during the day. He should daven Shachris (after sunrise or, if necessary, after dawn) and then recite Kiddush without Vayechulu (i.e. begin Kiddush with Savri Borai P’ri Hagefen ). If necessary, one may recite Kiddush (without ” Vayechulu “) until sunset 40 on Shabbos afternoon, and immediately eat the seudah,

  1. If one recited the night Kiddush during the day, he does not have to recite Kiddusha Rabbah,b.
  2. Iddusha Rabbah – This is Kiddush recitedduring the day (when regular Kiddush was recited at night).
  3. It may be said from any time after Shachris until sunset.
  4. This Kiddush consists of pesukim (e.g.
  5. V’shamru, Al Kain Bayrach), Savri, and Borai Pri Hagafen,

One should follow his family’s custom regarding which pesukim to say.3. Position – There are various customs regarding how Kiddush is recited. One should follow his family’s custom. The reasons for standing or sitting on Friday night are as follows: a. Standing – ” Vayechulu ” is aidus (testimony) that Hashem created the world and rested on Shabbos,

Just as witnesses stand before Bais Din when testifying, similarly some stand for this ” aidus ” and remain standing while reciting the entire Kiddush,b. Sitting – When being motzee others, everyone is joined together for that moment. This is known as a ” kviyus,” When everyone sits together, there is a stronger sense of unity of purpose and kviyus,c.

Some stand for Vayechulu because of aidus and then sit down for the rest of Kiddush for kviyus, During the day, there are two customs. Some people have a custom to stand when reciting Kiddusha Rabbah, while others have a custom to sit. One should follow his family custom.4.

  • Eating Before Kiddush – On Friday night, once Shabbos begins, 41 one may not eat or drink before Kiddush,
  • On Shabbos morning, men may drink water, tea or coffee before Shachris (after brochos ), but may not eat and may not drink ” chashuva beverages” (e.g.
  • Alcoholic beverages) unless they are required for health purposes.

After Shachris, one may not eat or drink until after Kiddush,A woman who normally davens may eat or drink before davening after reciting morning brochos, According to some Poskim, 42 on Shabbos if she needs to eat before davening, she is not required to recite Kiddush at that time.

  • Once she has completed davening Shachris, she must hear Kiddush before eating or drinking.F.
  • Yom Tov Kiddush Generally, the halachos of Kiddush on Yom Tov are similar to those of Shabbos,43 One follows the special nusach for Yom Tov as found in the Siddur or Machzor,
  • Shehecheyanu ” is said following Kiddush, with the exception of the last two nights of Pesach,44 When Yom Tov occurs on Shabbos, the Yom Tov Kiddush with ” Vayechulu ” and the special Shabbos additions are recited.

When Yom Tov occurs on Motzai Shabbos, Kiddush and Havdalah are recited on the same cup of wine. The acronym used to remember the order is YaKNeHaZ : Yayin (wine) – the brocha of Borai Pri Hagafen ; Kiddush – the regular nusach of Yom Tov Kiddush ; Ner – Borei Me’orai Ha’aish; 45 Havdalah – A special brocha of Havdalah for Motzai Shabbos going into Yom Tov ; Z’man – the brocha of Shehecheyanu,46 There are no b’samim,

Whenever the word ” Kiddush ” or ” kodesh ” is used, it indicates holiness and separation. For example, the place of the ” Kodesh HaKedoshim ” in the Bais Hamikdash remains the holiest of sites that is set apart from all other places on earth. When we, as Yidden, recite Kiddush every Shabbos we reflect upon the holiness of the day, as well as how the Jewish people have remained sanctified and separated from the other nations of the world.

In our modern world filled with ATMs, cell phones, instant messaging and MP3s, it is Klal Yisroel who emulates the Ribono Shel Olam when we stop all of our work for Shabbos, The cup of Kiddush wine symbolizes our responsibility to sanctify everything around us.

That is what Shabbos is all about.1 It should be noted that the melody of Kiddush for all of the Shalosh Regalim is also the tune used elsewhere during each z’man of Yom Tov, On Shavuos (Z man Matan Torasainu ), it is also used for Akdamus, On Simchas Torah (Z man Simchasainu ), it is also used when calling up the Chosson Torah and Chosson Beraishis (” Mairshus “).

On Pesach (Z man Chairusainu ), some also use this tune during the Hagaddah for ” Lefeechach ” and the brocha of ” Asher Ga’alanu. ” 2 The Rambam ( Hilchos Shabbos 29:1) writes that the obligation to remember Shabbos is both at the beginning and the end of Shabbos,

Technically, Havdalah is also a ” Kiddush ” for the end of Shabbos,3 See Tosfos Nazir 4a, ” my hee. ” Tosfos Pesachim 106a ” zochrayhu ” states two opinions: 1) the cup of wine is d’Rabonon ; 2) the cup of wine is d’Oraysa, but the drinking of it is d’Rabonon,4 There are slight differences between nuschaos (i.e.

whether certain words are said). One should follow his family custom.5 There is a dispute as to whether women are obligated to recite Kiddush on Yom Tov, The custom is to follow those who rule that they are obligated. For a full discussion, see Shemiras Shabbos K’hilchasa ( S.S.K.) Ch.47 footnote 26.6 The wine cup should also not be pogum (i.e.

This wine should not have been drunk from). For a full discussion, see S.S.K.47:15. There is a hiddur (best way to perform the mitzvah ) to use non- mevushal (uncooked) wine; however, mevushal wine may also be used. When using non- mevushal wine, one must be careful that gentiles and non-observant Jews do not come into contact with the wine.

One should preferably not use wine which was left uncovered for several hours ( megulah ) – see Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:5. Some are mehadar to recite Kiddush on red wine – see Mishna Brura ( M.B.) 272:10. See also Rama 175:2 and M.B.175:13 regarding white wine.7 If wine and grape juice are not available, there may be other options as will be discussed in Section E.1.8 For a further discussion regarding halachic measurements, see the Autumn 1998 issue of Kashrus Kurrents, “Guide to Halachic Measurements,”available a by calling the Star-K office.9 This is in fulfillment of ” Hisna’eh B’mitzvos, ” that we derive from the passuk of ” Zeh Kaylee V’anvahu.

” 10 This is the shiur k’dai shtiyas revi’is (psak of HaRav Moshe Heinemann, shlita),11 The lenient opinion for k’dai achilas pras, See S.S.K.48:10.12 The ideal way to distribute Kiddush is as follows: After the completion of Kiddush, the mekadesh pours the wine from the becher into another cup. He then drinks a m’lo lugmav from the becher, and the wine in the other cup is distributed.

If a husband and wife are eating alone, and the wife is a niddah, the husband should either 1) put his cup down after drinking a m’lo lugmav and his wife drinks from that cup, or 2) pour wine into another cup and drink a m’lo lugmav from that cup. His wife should then drink from the becher that he has put down.13 Children age 6 and above can be counted in this drinking.14 Within the time of k’dai achilas pras,

  • For a full discussion, see Shulchan Aruch OC 271:13 & 14 and the Mishna Brura,15 Without da’as, one may not switch rooms.16 See Biur Halacha 273:1 ” v’chain ” and S.S.K,54:9.17 This is very common on Shabbos day in shul,
  • L’halachah, such Mezonos products constitute ” Kiddush B’Makom seudah ” on Friday night, if necessary.

See S.S.K,54:22.18 M.B.273:25. Matzoh meal cake is also ” B ‘M akom seudah. ” However, potato starch cakes and rice products, such as “Rice Krispies Treats,” can not be used for Kiddush B’Makom seudah,19 When hearing Kiddush, drink a revi’is, When reciting Kiddush, drink 1.51 revi’is,(i.e.

slightly more than a half- reviis to be yotzai Kiddush and then another reviis for b’makom “seuda “) of wine or grape juice ( S.S.K.54:23). If one becomes ill from grain and wine products, he should eat fruits in order to have Kiddush B’Makom seudah ( Shiltay Gibborim as quoted in M.B.273:26 ). It is preferable that the fruit be cooked (see Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:16).

One should rely on this only if it is a major sha’as hadechak,20 About the size of a golf ball or roll of quarters.21 Friday night in shul, one is not yotzai Kiddush recited during Maariv, This Kiddush is an old minhag (custom) that was established when guests ate in the shul,

  1. The custom is to give this wine to children under the age of Bar Mitzvah,
  2. At least one child should be a ” bar chinuch, ” over 6 or 7 years old.22 Men and women must have lechem mishne at the three Shabbos meals.
  3. See Shulchan Aruch O.C.274:1.
  4. Additional guidelines regarding seudah Shlishis are addressed in Rama O.C.291:4.23 Shomaya K’ona is not unique to Kiddush,

When one hears Shofar or Megillah, one is yotzai with the principle of Shomaya K ‘ ona, For a thorough discussion of this topic, see Sefer Shaarei Shmiya by HaRav Mordechai Shuchatowitz, shlita,24 M.B.214:3.25 If he said something that pertains to Kiddush (e.g.

when necessary, he may say “We need little cups to give everyone Kiddush “), he need not repeat Borai Pri Hagafen,26 This means that he recites Kiddush with the intent that others should be ” yotzai,” 27 In this case, if someone recited Kiddush only for “his family”, and someone else was listening, the other listener would not be yotzai,28 One can be motzee others, even if he has been yotzai Kiddush already.

For example, one who was yotzai at a ” shul Kiddush ” may recite Kiddush for his family at home, even though he was already yotzai, For an extensive discussion, see Biur Halachah 271:1 meyad,29 It should be noted that a bochur who recently became Bar Mitzvah should not be motzee adults in mitzvos that have a Torah obligation (e.g.

Kiddush on Friday night). It is for this reason that Bar Mitzvah boys do not lain Parshas Zachor or blow shofar on Rosh Hashana for others. Under normal circumstances, they may be motzee adults only in mitzvos d’ rabanan (regular laining, chazaras hashatz, etc.) The reason for this is beyond the scope of this discussion.30 Although women are accustomed to hear Havdalah after Shabbos and Yom Tov, as well as Kiddush on Yom Tov, there is a question as to the status of their obligation.

The issue relates to the parameters of mitzvos asei shehaz’man grama – positive mitzvos bound by time, a topic beyond the scope of this article. Hence, they cannot be motzee men who are definitively obligated.31 The same halachos apply to Yom Tov night.32 The method of holding the challos in this case is discussed in M.B.271:41.33 The same halachos apply to Yom Tov during the day.34 When reciting Kiddush on schnapps, one should use a cup that holds a revi’is and drink a m’lo lugmav (as discussed above, Section B-3).

  • One who wishes to recite Kiddush using a shot glass (i.e.1 fl. oz.
  • Cup) should consult his Rav,35 See Igros Moshe O.C.2:75 and Aruch Hashulchan O.C.296:18.
  • The advantage of iced tea over hot tea is that one can easily drink a m’lo lugmav quickly enough k’dai shtiyas revi’is (see Mikrai Kodesh-Pesach 47:3).

When necessary, chamar medina may also be used for Havdalah,36 Regarding when it is necessary to repeat Shema and count Sefiras Ha’omer before Kiddush, see S.S.K.47:22 and 52:5.37 When Asara B’Teves (or any private fast) occurs on Friday, one must wait until Tzais Hakochavim to recite Kiddush,

  1. This case, and Taanis Bechorim for those who fast all day on Erev Pesach,are the only regular fasts that come to an end with the recitation of Kiddush,38 This time is based on the length of the day when 43/48 of the time between sunrise and sunset has elapsed.
  2. In the United States in the winter, this is often less than one clock hour before sunset; in the summer it is 1 ½ – 2 hours before sunset.39 The night Kiddush of Yom Tov may also be said after plag hamincha, l’chatchila, only on the following Yomin Tovim : 1) the seventh night of Pesach, 2) when the last night of Pesach occurs on Shabbos and 3) when the second night of Shavuos occurs on Shabbos,
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One should not recite Kiddush before Tzais Hakochavim (before it is dark and three stars are visible) on any other night of Yom Tov,40 This should only be done b’shaas hadchak, If one was unable to recite Kiddush until after sunset on Shabbos afternoon, one should still say it until Tzais Hakochavim without Shaim U ‘ Malchus (i.e.

  • Say Boruch Asher Kidshanu v ‘ ratza banu Boruch mekadesh HaShabbos ).
  • See M.B.271:39.41 Shabbos begins either because the sun has set, or because an individual has been mikabel Shabbos by lighting candles or during davening (e.g.
  • By saying Bo’ee B’Shalom of L’cha Dodi ).
  • A woman who is thirsty may drink water after lighting candles if it is still before sunset ( S.S.K.43:46).

Before Shabbos, one may not begin a Hamotzee meal from the 10th hour of the day (3 halachic hours before sunset) so as not to suppress one’s appetite. One may, however, eat cake or other Mezonos, On Erev Pesach, one may not even eat Mezonos after the 10th hour.

Similarly, men may not eat Mezonos after the 10th hour on Erev Sukkos,42 For the various details regarding this halachah, see Machze Eliyahu 33:3.43 However, on the Seder night the seudah does not immediately follow Kiddush (due to Maggid, etc.) 44 On the second night of Rosh Hashana, one should eat a new fruit immediately after Kiddush or wear a new garment.

On the first night of Sukkos, Shehecheyanu is recited after the brocha of ” Layshev Basukkah, ” and on the second night before ” Layshev Basukkah. ” When the second night of Sukkos occurs on Motzai Shabbos, the longest possible Kiddush is recited.45 One should recite Borei Meorei Ha’aish using the Yom Tov candles, putting them together side by side while upright.

  1. They should not be tilted to touch each other.
  2. Alternatively, one may recite the brochah using a non-frosted incandescent light bulb which was turned on before Shabbos (or was turned on by a timer which was set before Shabbos ).46 When the last night of Pesach occurs on Motzai Shabbos, the acronym of ” YaKNeHa” would be applied as Shehecheyanu ( z’man ) is not said.

It should be noted that this case (i.e. when the last night of Pesach occurs on Motzai Shabbos ) is the only time that Kiddush ends with ” Kodesh ” ( Hamavdil Bain Kodesh L’Kodesh ).

Can Jews eat pork?

Abstract – Both Judaism and Islam have prohibited eating pork and its products for thousands of years. Scholars have proposed several reasons for the ban to which both religions almost totally adhere. Pork, and the refusal to eat it, possesses powerful cultural baggage for Jews.

  • Israel has legislated two related laws: the Pork Law in 1962, that bans the rearing and slaughter of pigs across the country, and the Meat Law of 1994, prohibiting all imports of nonkosher meats into Israel.
  • While not abounding, Israeli pork-eaters certainly exist, and a small number of pig-breeding farms operate in the country, mostly in Christian villages.

The influx of Russian immigrants in the 1990s helped boost sales of pork, but the force of the taboo remains so powerful that many secular Israelis still eschew pork dishes, while willing to eat less charged nonkosher items such as shellfish. A porchetta feast recently held in the Muslim-Jewish town of Jaffa, defied the religious and cultural taboo.

Can Jews drive on Sabbath?

Orthodox – Orthodoxy generally prohibits driving during Shabbat under all circumstances except for a life-threatening emergency. Orthodox Jews have never challenged prohibitions against driving on Shabbat, but rather have striven to make any accommodations necessary to avoid this activity, including living within walking distance of a synagogue and other places where they wish to visit regularly during Shabbat, walking long distances when the need arises, and staying at home throughout Shabbat when this is not possible.

Those who are travelling away from their hometown will attempt to find a hotel or other accommodations within a practical walk of their Shabbat needs. While riding an animal, the primary ancient form of transportation, during Shabbat is rabbinically prohibited, the operation of an automobile is considered a direct violation of Torah law due to the burning of fuel, among other issues.

Additionally, those who do drive frequently travel greater distances than those who walk, thereby leaving the boundaries of the local eruv and violating those Shabbat laws pertaining to traveling beyond the “boundary distance” ( techum shabbat ) and transferring between a public and private domain ( hotza’ah ).

Orthodox Jews do not view the use of the automobile in order to fulfill the mitzvah of attending synagogue as acceptable. In Orthodox Judaism, committing a sin in order to fulfill a mitzvah other than saving a human life ( Pikuach Nefesh ) is not considered Halachically acceptable, and if one cannot reach a synagogue by walking, it is preferable to pray at home.

In particular, Orthodox Judaism frowns upon those who purchase a home too far to walk to a synagogue, then state they can only reach the synagogue by car, or those who live within a practical walk to a synagogue, but prefer attendance at one that can only be reached by car from their home.

Certain professionals who perform life-saving duties, such as physicians, may be permitted to drive during Shabbat to their place of employment in order to perform these duties, and may be permitted to drive home following the completion of their work. A non-professional who drives to a hospital during an emergency is not permitted to drive home, once the emergency situation has been stabilized.

Parking and turning off the vehicle may not be permitted under these circumstances either, although moving the car out of the emergency lane is viewed with more leniency. In practice, though truly Orthodox Jews generally do not drive during the Sabbath, some Jews use their vehicles to reach Orthodox synagogues for services.

Can you exercise on Shabbat?

The Tosefta writes that one may not run on Shabbat in order to be mit-amel, but one may walk normally all day and need not worry.

What is Shabbat and when does it begin and end?

About the Jewish Holidays | Religious and Spiritual Life Shabbat The Jewish Sabbath— Shabbat in Hebrew, Shabbos in Yiddish—is observed every week beginning at sunset on Friday evening and ending after dark on Saturday evening. For religiously observant Jews, Shabbat is as important as any other holy day.

  1. Orthodox Jews do not work or travel on Shabbat.
  2. Consequently, Friday evening or Saturday classes or exams will generally pose a conflict for Orthodox Jewish students.
  3. Rosh Hashanah The Jewish New Year, the beginning of ten days of penitence or teshuvah culminating on Yom Kippur.
  4. Traditionally celebrated with sweet or round foods such as apples and honey, and the blowing of the shofar, a hollowed-out ram’s horn, during religious services.

A customary greeting is shanah tovah or “happy new year!”

Yom Kippur Sukkot

The Day of Atonement; a very solemn day devoted to fasting, prayer, and repentance. Observant Jews do not eat, drink (including water), bathe, engage in sexual activity, or wear anything made of leather on this day of awe. The week-long harvest festival of Sukkot, or “Feast of Tabernacles,” commemorates the dwelling of the Israelites in temporary booths ( sukkot in Hebrew) during their 40-year sojourn in the Sinai desert.

Many families build their own sukkah in which it is customary to eat meals and sleep, and to shake the lulav, a palm frond bound together with myrtle and willow branches, and the etrog, a kind of citrus (pictured here, growing in the Smith College greenhouse, where it is identified as a “Moroccan citrus”).

Photo of etrog by Larry Goldbaum. ​ Shemini Atzeret Although technically a separate holiday, Shemini Atzeret (or the “Eighth Day of Assembly”) is in effect the final day of Sukkot. The last portion of the Torah is read on this day. Observant Jews do not work or travel on this yom tov or “holy day.” Simchat Torah Shemini Atzeret is immediately followed by the joyous holiday of Simchat Torah—or “rejoicing of the Law”—which is traditionally celebrated by dancing with Torah scrolls and singing hakafot, songs of praise and gratitude. Hanukkah The eight-day festival of Hanukkah—or “Festival of Lights”—commemorates the miraculous victory of the Maccabees and rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem. Hanukkah is NOT the Jewish equivalent of Christmas!! In fact, it is a relatively minor Jewish holiday (in religious terms) which unlike most other Jewish holidays, has no restrictions whatsoever on work or travel—although many Jewish families and communities get together to celebrate this festive holiday.

  • It is customary to eat fried foods such as potato latkes or jelly doughnuts.
  • Photo of Hanukkah menorah (or ‘chanukiah’ in Hebrew) by Larry Goldbaum Purim This carnival-like holiday celebrates the defeat of a plot to destroy the Jews of Persia.
  • It is customary to dress in costumes (similar to Halloween or Mardi Gras), and to give gifts of food to friends and the needy, particularly hamantashen, triangular pastries filled with fruit or poppy seeds.

Passover (or Pesach in Hebrew) The week-long spring festival of Pesach commemorates the deliverance of the Jewish people from bondage in ancient Egypt. The Passover Seder on the first two nights—an elaborate and ritualized meal—recounts the story of Exodus using ritual foods, prayers, stories and songs.

  1. Only the first two and last two days of Passover are observed as full holy days, with restrictions on work and travel.
  2. However, many extended Jewish families gather for the holiday, and consequently some Jewish students may miss the entire week of classes.
  3. In Israel, schools are always closed for Passover.) Shavuot Feast of Weeks; marks the giving of the Law (Torah) at Mt Sinai.

: About the Jewish Holidays | Religious and Spiritual Life

How many hours does Shabbat last?

The Sabbath is commanded by God – Every week religious Jews observe the Sabbath, the Jewish holy day, and keep its laws and customs. The Sabbath begins at nightfall on Friday and lasts until nightfall on Saturday. In practical terms the Sabbath starts a few minutes before sunset on Friday and runs until an hour after sunset on Saturday, so it lasts about 25 hours.

What night is Shabbat dinner?

Friday night is the start of the Jewish Sabbath, which commences at sundown and continues until the same time on Saturday evening. The meal is a time of celebration when many families – often several generations – sit down to eat together.

Why do you cover your eyes when lighting Shabbat candles?

I grew up learning that it was the mother’s job to light Shabbat candles. Why? Are men allowed to light them as well? I grew up learning that it was the mother’s job to light Shabbat candles. Why? Are men allowed to light them as well? Never miss the best stories and events! Get JewishBoston This Week. According to Jewish law, the mitzvah of lighting Shabbat candles falls equally on men and women, but the association of women and lighting the Shabbat candles is very old. Already by the time of the Mishnah (around 200 C.E.), we’re told that women have three mitzvot (ritual obligations) associated especially with them: lighting the Shabbat candles; separating out part of the dough—called the challah—before baking the bread, sort of like an offering; and making sure not to come into contact with her husband during her menstrual period.

  • No explanation is given for why these three, but the assumption about the bread and the cande-lighting is that these were two rituals associated with the home, and so they became the woman’s responsibility.
  • But if there is no woman in the house, than a man must do the lighting.
  • Today, many people like lighting the Shabbat candles, and in some families, everyone gets to light, with sets of candles for parents and kids.

Some women have fond memories of their mothers doing the lighting, and they like the association of candle-lighting with the “woman of the house.” Men certainly aren’t forbidden, so in your household, whomever wants to should have a chance to light! Some traditions connected with lighting the Shabbat candles include:

Covering our eyes right after we light so that we don’t yet “use” the light before saying the blessing over the candles. After the blessing, we uncover our eyes and, voila, there is Shabbat light. Making a circling motion three times with our hands over the lights right before we close our eyes, and then saying the blessing, either quietly to ourselves, or out loud with others. I think of this circling as if I’m bringing the light—and a bit of Shabbat—into myself. I like to keep my eyes closed for a moment after the blessing, sending a blessing of Shabbat light and peace to whomever in the world may need it that night. After the blessing, saying “Shabbat shalom” or “Good Shabbos” to whomever you’re with!

is the rabbi at, a Reconstructionist synagogue in West Newton. Never miss the best stories and events! Get JewishBoston This Week. This post has been contributed by a third party. The opinions, facts and any media content are presented solely by the author, and assumes no responsibility for them.